HARVEY LEIBENSTEIN Biography - Bussiness people and enterpreneurs


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Harvey Leibenstein (1922 - 1994) was an American economist. He introduced the       
term X-efficiency.                                                                   
The X-efficiency describes the costs of monopolies when they lack competitors.       
Leibenstein could demonstrate the diffuculties with determine the market price       
of a monopolist’s product which John Maurice Clark used to evaluate the           
qualitity of monopolies. The Term x-efficiency is also used in the theory of         
Important works                                                                     
1950, "Bandwagon, Snob and Veblen Effects in the Theory of Consumer Demand."         
Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol.64 No.2 : Page 183-207                           
1966, Allocative efficiency v. "x-efficiency" in American Economic Review           
1968, Entrepreneurship and Development. American Economic Review 58(2):7283         
1976, Beyond Economic Man, Cambridge: Harvard: University Press                     
1978, General X-Efficiency Theory and Economic Development, New York: Oxford         
University Press                                                                     
1978, "X-Inefficiency Xists-Reply to an Xorcist," American Econ. Review, 68 (1978): 
1979, "A Branch of Economics Is Missing: Micro-Micro Theory," Journal of             
Economic Literature, 17: 477-502                                                     
1979, The General X-Efficiency Paradigm and the Role of the Entrepeneur. in:         
Mario Rizzo (ed.), Time, Uncertainty, and Disequilibrium. Lexington: Heath 1979,     
1982, “The Prisoners Dilemma in the Invisible Hand: An Analysis of Intrafirm       
Productivity. American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings) 72, no. 2 (May):     
1983, "Property Rights and X-Efficiency: Comment." American Economic Review 83: